Earth materials include rocks, soils, water, and gases. Rock is composed of minerals. Earth materials change over time from one form to another. These changes require energy. Erosion is the movement of materials and weathering is the breakage of bedrock and larger rocks into smaller rocks and soil materials. Soil is continually being formed from weathered rock and plant remains. Soil contains many living organisms. Plants generally get water and minerals from soil.
Students will understand the basic properties of rocks, the processes involved in the formation of soils, and the needs of plants provided by soil.
Identify basic properties of minerals and rocks.
- Describe the differences between minerals and rocks.
- Observe rocks using a magnifying glass and draw shapes and colors of the minerals.
- Sort rocks by appearance according to the three basic types: sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic (e.g., sedimentary-rounded-appearing mineral and rock particles that are cemented together, often in layers; igneous-with or without observable crystals that are not in layers or with or without air holes or glass like; metamorphic -crystals/minerals, often in layers).
- Classify common rocks found in Utah as sedimentary (i.e., sandstone, conglomerate, shale), igneous (i.e., basalt, granite, obsidian, pumice) and metamorphic (i.e., marble, gneiss, schist).